How big is the difference between blood sugar with and without exercise?
Regular physical activity significantly reduces HbA1c, triglycerides, and total cholesterol, raises HDL cholesterol and lowers LDL cholesterol. Similarly, exercise not only prevents the onset of diabetes complications, but also improves the development and prognosis of complications.
Even just 2 hours of walking per week can reduce all-cause mortality by 39% and cardiovascular event-induced mortality by 34% in people with diabetes.
Exercise therapy emphasizes “individualization,” and people with diabetes should make a reasonable exercise program based on their age and whether they have complications from diabetes, as well as the intensity of their exercise.
Therefore, no matter what kind of exercise you choose, it is important to remember that the three principles of exercise must be observed: gradual and orderly, according to your ability, and consistent.
How long to exercise every day
How much time to be active each day Simply put, physical activity should account for more than 15% of total energy consumption. For adults with an energy intake of 1600~2400kcal, 15% is about 240~360kcal.
Generally speaking, the daily consumption of energy such as daily chores and occupational activities is equivalent to about 2,000 steps (consuming about 80kcal of energy), and active physical activity should be at least 40 minutes, equivalent to 6,000 steps of brisk walking (5.4-6.0km/h) of exercise per day for young women, with energy consumption of about 300kcal. Women over 60 years of age can take slightly longer to complete 6,000 steps.
Daily physical activity for adults
The equivalent of 6,000 steps of brisk walking activity
What is the appropriate amount of exercise per day
Whether the amount of exercise is appropriate has a great impact on the effectiveness of exercise therapy.
(1) Appropriate amount of exercise standard
After exercise, you feel mild shortness of breath, slight warmth around the body, slightly red, relaxed and happy, good appetite, sleep, although slightly tired, muscle pain, but can disappear after rest, the next day full of energy, the desire to exercise.
(2) Criteria for excessive exercise
Feeling sweaty after exercise, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest tightness, very tired, pulse rate has not recovered 5 minutes after stopping exercise, weakness the next day, no desire to exercise.
(3) Criteria for insufficient exercise
Exercise is always maintained at the level of “no change of face, no heartbeat”, that is, no fever, no sweating, no change in pulse rate or recovery within 2 minutes after exercise.
Sugar users can record their feelings and exercise time during different exercises to determine the right exercise program, exercise volume and exercise intensity for them.
Common physical activity intensity and energy expenditure table
Exercise intensity should not be too high. Excessive exercise or strenuous exercise in a short period of time will stimulate the stress response of the body, leading to increased secretion of catecholamines and other hormones that counteract the action of insulin, elevating blood sugar and even inducing diabetic ketoacidosis, which is very detrimental to the control of diabetes.
If a patient experiences any discomfort during exercise, such as large blood glucose fluctuations and fatigue that is difficult to recover from, the intensity of exercise should be reduced or stopped immediately.
Patients with diabetes should be advised to adjust their diet and medication during heavy activity or strenuous exercise to avoid hypoglycemia.
What is the appropriate frequency of exercise?
It has been found that if the interval between exercises exceeds 3 days, the insulin sensitivity that has been obtained will be reduced, and the effect of exercise and its accumulation will be reduced.
The frequency of exercise is generally appropriate for 3 to 7 days a week, depending on the amount of exercise. If the amount of exercise each time is large, it can be spaced out for one or two days, but not more than 3 days. If the amount of exercise each time is small and the patient’s body allows it, it is ideal to insist on exercising once a day.
What conditions are temporarily unsuitable for exercise
People with poor disease control, very high blood sugar (>16.7mmol/L), or obvious blood sugar fluctuations. Such patients should not participate in exercise until their blood sugar is well controlled.
Those with recent significant fundus hemorrhage, retinal detachment and glaucoma should participate in sports until their condition is under control.
Those who have diabetic nephropathy with protein, red blood cells and tubular type in the urine should reduce the amount of exercise.
Those with significantly elevated blood pressure (above 180/110 mmHg) should suspend exercise.
Patients with severe arrhythmias, cardiac insufficiency, angina pectoris with mild activity, or new myocardial infarction within 4 weeks should discontinue exercise.
Finally, remind the majority of sugar lovers, exercise can be included in the daily schedule, develop awareness of exercise and habits, arrange exercise in a planned manner, gradually increase the amount of exercise to reach the weekly recommended amount, find and develop their own interest in exercise, and a combination of variety, persistent, the daily exercise into a habit.